Bunions are a common problem that most individuals experience as a painful swelling or a bony protuberance at the inner base of the big toe. This condition is the result of a malalignment of the first toe. These can be hereditary or secondary to wearing high-heeled or narrow toe-box shoes.
Inflammatory joint diseases. Those who suffer from rheumatoid and psoriatic arthritis are at risk for bunions, although many times, those who suffer from bunions will mistakenly attribute the soreness in their feet to arthritis. Genetic and neuromuscular factors. Individuals with Down?s Syndrome are believed to be more prone to developing bunions; therefore, the gait and feet of such patients should be examined carefully and regularly so that any problems can be caught and treated early. Similarly, individuals of any age who have been diagnosed with Ehlers-Danlos or Marfan?s Syndrome, have also been shown to have a higher than average occurrence of bunions. Limb inequality. Individuals who have legs of unequal length often suffer from bunions on the longer limb due to the irregular mechanics of their walking or running gait.
With Bunions, a person will have inflammation, swelling, and soreness on the side surface of the big toe. Corns most commonly are tender cone-shaped patches of dry skin on the top or side of the toes. Calluses will appear on high-pressure points of the foot as thick hardened patches of skin.
Your family doctor or chiropodist /podiatrist can identify a bunion simply by examining your foot. During the exam, your big toe will be moved up and down to determine if your range of motion is limited. You will be examined for signs of redness or swelling and be questioned about your history of pain. A foot x-ray can show an abnormal angle between the big toe and the foot. In some cases, arthritis may also be seen. A X-ray of your foot may help identify the cause of the bunion and rate its severity.
Non Surgical Treatment
If you suspect a bunion, it is essential that you confirm your suspicions by consulting with a podiatric physician. Don?t try to treat the problem yourself, even by using conservative measures. Many conditions have similar symptoms, and only a professional can tell the difference. Once a diagnosis is obtained, it is essential to begin treatment immediately. Your podiatric physician will advise you on the most effective means. If caught early enough, good foot care, shoes that fit properly, and/or orthoses may eliminate the need for any further intervention. Certain over-the-counter remedies, such as felt or foam pads, applied to specific areas of the foot to relieve pressure and friction, will protect the bunion. Elevating the foot and icing the area for 20 minutes an hour may help to relieve pain.
Bunion surgery is most often done on an outpatient or day-surgery basis, usually with a local anesthetic technique called an ankle block. The surgery typically takes an hour or two to perform. Following your surgery, you will stay in the Recovery Room for several hours while the anesthetic wears off. For your safety, you will be required to have someone to drive you home. You should keep in mind that any surgery carries with it very small-but-possible risks of complications such as allergic reaction to anesthesia, bleeding and infection.